Saturday, April 8, 2017


  1. Rao M.N. and Dutta, Waste Water Treatment, Oxford and IBM Publications Ltd.
  2. Eckenfelder, WW., Industrial waste Pollution control. Me Graw Hill Book Co.
  3. C.S Rao, Environmental Pollution Control Engineering, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.
  4. M.N. Rao, H. V.N. Rao, Air Pollution Control, Tata McGraw Hill
  5. Sincero and Sincere, Environmental Engineering, Prentice hall of India.
  6. Kelley,Environmental Engineering, McGraw Hill Publication.
  7. NPTEL video lecture by Dr. Ligy Philip
  8. Industrial waste management web notes by I W M Srinivas (GITAM university
  9. Handbook of water and wastewater treatment technologies - Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Butterworth-Heinemann publications
  10. Waste treatment in the process industries - edited by Lawrence K. Wang, Yung-Se Hung, Howard H. Lo, Constantine Yapijakis, CRC press
  11. Waste to resources: A waste management handbook, The Energy Resources Institute, 2014
  12. Lectures and presentations by Dr. Shrikant Jahagirdar, Head of Department (Civil Engineering) at NKOCET, Solapur, Maharashtra
  13. An introduction to stack sampling - Wallace, Saskechewan Research Council 2013
  14. Treatment of waste generated from waste generated from cement industry - Kuldeep Sharma, Ujjwal Jain, Anupam Singhal, BITS Pilani
  15. Guidelines for abatement of waste from textile industry, Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board
  16. Textile dyeing wastewater treatment - Zongping Wang, Miaomiao Xue, Kai Huang and Zizheng Liu, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China published by InTechOpen
  17. Industrial wastewater treatment - Rein Munter
  18. "Parivesh" A newsletter from ENVIS center, CPCB
  19. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater from cement units - D. Freeda Gnana Rani, K. Arunkumar, & S.R. Sivakumar, Jr. of Industrial Pollution Control - Enviromedia
  20. Hazardous Material (Management, Handling and Transboundary movement) Rules published by Government of India, MoEF
  21. Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook - Frank Woodard
  22. Industrial Wastewater Treatment - NG Wun Jern, Imperial College Press
  23. Industrial wastewater - UNESCO - Encyclopedia Of Life Support Systems
  24. Industrial wastewater - Abdulrzzak Alturkmani
  25. Liquid waste from industry - theories, practice and treatment - Numersorn N.L
  26. Handbook of water and wastewater treatment plant operations - Frank R. Spellman, Lewis publishers

Generalised EIA process flowchart

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Cement industry

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Cement industry
The major contaminant from cement industry is SPM and RSPM in the form of dust due to mining and grinding operations involved in the process. Hence, cement industries contribute to air pollution and virtually zero water pollution.
Cement is a compound madeup of
  • calcium oxide and 
  • silicon dioxide along with 
  • aluminium oxide, 
  • ferric oxide and 
  • magnesium oxide. 
 Raw materials required for the manufacture of cement are
  • lime
  • sand
  • clay
  • shale
  • iron ore and
  • blast furnace slag
In order to manufacture cement, the raw materials are passed through the following six phases:
  • Raw material extraction / Quarrying
  • Grinding, Proportioning and blending
  • Pre-heater phase
  • Kiln phase
  • Cooling and final grinding
  • Packing and shipping
Several cement plants have made a sustained effort in controlling and regulating emissions by using air pollution control devices like electrostatic precipitators and bag filters. Fugitive emissions in cement plants is still a problem

  • In cement industries, water is used only for cooling operation of manufacturing operation. Process wastewater with high pH and suspended solids may be generated in some operations. Water used for cooling is recycled and reused. Screening along with settling basin and clarifier is used for reduction of suspended solids. Treated water from wastewater treatment plant is used for development of green belt which helps in reducing noise pollution. Storm water flowing through pet-coke, coal and waste material stock piles exposed to the open air may become contaminated with high amount of sulphates, toxic metals like zinc, lead and chromium present in dust. Contaminated water from cement manufacturing industry may leach into the ground and contaminate groundwater with excessive TDS.
  • The major sources of contaminants in water due to cement industry are:
  1. Cooling water and
  2. Wet scrubbing of kiln dust that yields an effluent with a high 
    1. pH value
    2. Alkalinity
    3. Suspended and dissolved solids like sulphates and potassium
The flowchart for manufacturing process in the cement industry is shown below:

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Distilleries

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Distilleries

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Sugar industries

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Sugar industries
The process of manufacturing sugar involves the following processes:
  1. Growing and harvesting cane
  2. Cane preparation for milling
  3. Milling
  4. Clarification
  5. Evaporation
  6. Crystallization
  7. Centrifugation
  8. Drying
  9. Refining
Beet sugar processing is similar except that it is done in one continuous process. Sugar beets are washed, sliced and soaked in hot water to separate the sugar containing juice from the beet fiber. The sugar laden juice is then purified, filtered, concentrated and dried in a series of steps similar to cane sugar processing. The process flowcharts are shown below:

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Fertilizer industry

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Fertilizer industry

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Thermal power plants

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Thermal power plants

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Steel plants

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Steel plants

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Textile industry

Manufacturing processes & Wastewater characteristics for Textile industry

Environmental legislation related to industrial effluents and hazardous wastes

Environmental legislation related to industrial effluents and hazardous wastes

Issues related to rehabilitation and resettlement of displaced communities

Issues related to rehabilitation and resettlement of displaced communities

Preparation of EIAs of road project, industry and dam

Preparation of EIAs of road project, industry and dam

Preparation of EMP

Evaluation of Impacts

Evaluation of Impacts

Baseline data collection required for EIA

Baseline data collection required for EIA
Baseline data collection refers to collection collection of baseline information information on biophysical biophysical, social and economic aspects of a project area.
Project area is defined as the area where environmental environmental effects effects and impacts impacts are felt during construction or operational stages of a project.

Collection of baseline information serves two purposes: 

  • It provides a description of the status and trends of environmental factors (e.g., air pollutant concentrations) against which predicted changes can be compared and evaluated in terms of importance.
  • It provides a means of detecting actual change by monitoring once a project has been initiated.

Major environmental environmental parameters parameters to be considered in field are:

  • Physical: topography, geology, soil types, surface and ground water condition, watershed condition, pollution levels etc.
  • Biological: terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, types flora and fauna, environmentally environmentally sensitive sensitive wetlands wetlands, prime agricultural land etc
  • Socio‐economic: demography, development needs and potential, infrastructure facilities, economic activities etc.
  • Cultural: location and state of archeological, historical, religious sites

Primary Sources: Result of the field and laboratory data collected and analyzed directly
Secondary sources: Data collected indirectly from published records or documents such as project documents, village proFlie, maps,photos, internet sources etc

Methods of data collection:

  1. General methods: Literature review, map interpretation, checklists (e.g. scaling and questionnaire checklists, matrices etc)
  2. Resource‐based methods: methods: Scientific Scientific instruments instruments and techniques techniques(inventory, species area curve, sampling techniques, PRA, RRA)

Data Processing
Raw data is converted into knowledge and information that is more easily comprehensible. Tools such as tables, graphs, maps can be used for presentation.

  1. For physical data: graphs, tables, enumeration
  2. For biological data: species numbers, volume, density, biomass can be calculated.
  3. Species diversity (No. of species/Area sampled) can also be used for processing processing biological biological data calculated calculated through through species richness of an area.
  4. Socioeconomic data: Data such as male/female male/female, skilled/semi skilled/semi skilled skilled labor force for construction and operational activities can be presented through, graphs, tables, population pyramids etc. which can be collected through sampling (random, stratified or mixed).

Baseline studies in EIA may take a long time, hence EIA is blamed for higher costs and delays in project implementation.
Therefore, the studies should be focused on those aspects that are likely to be affected.
Four critical points exist project implementation

  1. Decision on Project Project Approval Approval
  2. Decision on the Location of Project
  3. Decision on the Project Design
  4. Decision on the Operation of Project

Methods of EIA

Methods of EIA

Listed below are the important methodologies for assessing the impacts of any developmental activity on the environment:

  1. Adhoc method
  2. Checklist method
  3. Matrix method
  4. Network method
  5. Overlay method
  6. Environmental index using factor analysis
  7. Cost/Benefit analysis
  8. Predictive or Simulation methods

These methods might vary from:
Simple to Complex
Static piece-meal approach to Dynamic nature of the environment

The change in EIA is moving away from a simple listing of potential impacts to complex modes involving identification of feedback paths leading to higher order impacts as compared to the easily visible first order impacts involving uncertainities. This approach can be considered as an overall management technique requiring different

kinds of data in different formats along with varying levels of expertise and technological inputs to accurately forecast the results of any planned development.

  1. Ad hoc methods

Ad hoc methods indicate broad areas of possible impacts by listing composite environmental parameters (Ex: flora and fauna) likely to be affected by the proposed activity.
These methods involve assembling a team of specialists who identify impacts in their area of expertise. Here, each parameter is considered separately and the nature of impacts (long term or short term, reversible or irreversible) are considered.
These methods give a rough assessment of total impact while giving the broad areas and the general nature of possible impacts. In this method, the assessor relies on an intuitive approach and makes a broad-based qualitative assessment. This method serves as a preliminary assessment and helps in identification of important areas like:

  • Wildlife
  • Endangered species
  • Natural vegetation
  • Exotic vegetation
  • Grazing
  • Social characteristics
  • Natural drainage
  • Groundwater
  • Noise
  • Air quality
  • Visual description and services
  • Open space
  • Recreation
  • Health and safety
  • Economic values and
  • Public facilities

Types of Ad hoc method are:

  • Opinion poll
  • Expert opinion and
  • Delphi methods

This method is very simple and can be performed without any training. It does not involve any relative weighting  or any cause-effect relationship.
It provides minimal guidance for impact analysis while suggesting broad areas for possible impacts. Moreover, it does not even state the actual impacts on specific parameters that will be affected.
The drawbacks of this method are listed below:

  1. It gives no assurance that a comprehensive set of all relevant impacts have been studied
  2. Analysis using this method lacks consistency as it different criteria are selectively evaluated by different groups
  3. It is blatantly inefficient as it requires a considerable effort to identify and assemble a panel for each assessment.
2. Checklist method
In this method, environmental factors are listed in a structured format by giving importance weightings for factors and application of scaling techniques for impacts of each alternative.
Checklists are strong indicators of impact identification. They effectively garner the attention and awareness of their audience. Impact identification is a fundamental function of an EIA. Checklists may be:
  1. Simple
  2. Descriptive
  3. Scaling or
  4. weighting type
Simple checklists are a list of parameters without guidelines regarding either interpretation or measurement of environmental parameters or specific data needs or impact prediction and assessment.

Descriptive checklists  include list of environmental factors along with information on measurement, impact prediction and assessment.

Scaling and weighting checklists facilitate decision making. Such checklists are strong in impact identification. While including the function of impact identification, they include a certain degree of interpretation and evaluation. The aforementined factors make these methods attractive to decision-making analysis.
However, the scaling and weighting methods are subjective and hence pose the danger of imparting equal importance to every impact. Another defect observed by critics is that numerical values assigned to impacts can be derived on the basis of expert knowledge and judgement alone.
Scaling and weighting checklist techniques quantify impacts reasonably well although they use subjective extimates. However, they make no provision for assessing dynamic probabilistic trends or mitigation, enhancement and monitoring programmes. These methods cannot identify higher order effects, impacts and interactions.

Simple and descriptive checklists simply identify the possible potential impacts without any rating regarding their relative magnitudes.

Scaling and weighting checklists remove decision making from the hands of decision makers while they impart a single number to various inherently different impacts and this aspect prevents the decision maker to consider the possibility of trade-offs.

In checklist method, the impacts are tabulated in the form of cells with information either in the descriptive form that gives information regarding possibility or potential existence of an impact whereas in the scaling or weighing methods the magnitude or importance of impact is given. Sample checklists or weighing methods used in EIA are shown below:
The advantages of this method are:

  1. It is simple to understand and use
  2. It is good for site selection and priority setting
Disadvantages of this method are:
  1. It does not distinguish between direct and indirect impacts
  2. It does not link action and impact
  3. It is cumbersome at times

3. Matrix Method
This methodology provides a framework of interaction of different activities of a project with potential environmental impacts caused by them. A simple interaction matrix is formed when project actions are listed on one axis (usually vertical) and environmental impacts are listed along the other axis. This technique was pioneered by Leopold et al in 1971. It lists about 100 project actions and about 88 environmental charateristics and conditions. An example of this matrix is shown below:
Similarly, a sectoral matrix is shown below:

  • The advantage of the matrix method is that it links action to impact
  • This is a very good method for displaying EIA results

The disadvantages of this method are listed below:

  • It is difficult to distinguish between direct and indirect impacts using this method
  • There is potential for double-counting of impacts
  • It is qualitative in nature and does not refer to quantity of impact
4. Network method:

  • This method uses the matrix approach and extends it to include both the primary as well as the secondary impacts
  • It is shown in the form of a tree called impact tree. This diagram is also called as reference or sequence diagram
  • Identification of direct, indirect along with short, long term impact is a crucial and basic step of making an impact tree
  • The impact tree is used to identify cause-effect linkages
  • The impact tree is a visual description of linkages
  • The diagram below shows the example of a network analysis:

The advantages of the network method are:

  • It links action to impact
  • It is useful to check second order impacts in a simplified form
  • It handles direct and indirect impacts
The disadvantages of this method are:
  • It becomes overly complex if used beyond simplified version
  • It is completely qualitative in nature
5. Overlays
  • This method depends on a set of maps of a project area's environmental characteristics covering physical,  social, ecological and aesthetic aspects
  • It enables separate mapping of critical environmental features at the same scale as project's site plan (Ex: wetlands, steep slopes, soils, floodplains, bedrock outcrops, wildlife habitats, vegetative communities, cultural resources, etc)
  • In the old technique, environmental features were mappped on transparent plastic in different colours
  • Modern technique of the same activity is done using computer software, hardware, data and skilled people. It is called GIS (Geographic Information Systems)
The advantages of this method are:
  • It is easy to understand and use
  • It has a good display and
  • It is good for setting site selection
The disadvantages of this method are:
  • It addresses only direct impacts
  • It does not address impact duration or probability

Capabilities and limitations of EIA

Capabilities and limitations of EIA

The capabilities of an EIA are listed below:

  • An EIA is capable of establishing baseline data (concerning social, physical and biological parameters) before starting any development activity
  • An EIA enables the government and public at large to evaluate the benefits of the project versus the environmental degradation or modification
  • An EIA also enforces regular monitoring to ensure that the project is not damaging the environment  beyond repair
  • An EIA is capable of informing the public at large regarding any development activity in an environmentally sensitive area thereby causing public outcry enabling the government to terminate any project with vested interests that damages the livelihood of people (tribes sustaining on the environment).
  • An EIA guides the project proponent to study the environment and propose the needed modifications to mitigate the adverse effects of any development activity

EIA suffers from the following limitations
  • EIA should be undertaken at the project level but it is undertaken at the policy and planning level
  • Range of project alternatives inthe project EIA is small
  • There is no defined criteria to determine what type of projects undergo an EIA thereby requiring unnecessary expenditure and delay
  • Lack of comprehensive environment information base, limitation  of time, manpower and financial resources
  • More research and development of improved methodologies is required to overcome limitations related to uncertainities in data
  • EIA reports are extremely academic, bureaucratic and lengthy containing too many tables of collected data without data analysis, interpretation and environmental implications
  • In actual practice, EIA ends immediately after project clearance and no follow-up action is taken
  • It does not incorporate strategies of preventing environmental intervention.
  • Project EIAs are limited to the projects direct impacts and this leads to ignoring wide range of impacts including:
    • Cumulative impacts
    • Global impacts
    • Indirect, secondary or induced impacts
    • Synergistic impacts
 Finally, the issue of resource conservation, waste minimization, bye-product recovery, and improvement of efficiency of equipment need to be pursued as the explicit goal of EIA.

Objectives of EIA

Objectives of EIA:
EIA is a process that envisions several objectives which are  described below:
  • EIA facilitates decision making: EIA provides a systematic systematic investigation of the environmental implications of a proposed project alongwith the suggested alternatives before a decision is taken. The decision along with documents related to the planned activity is called Environmental Impact Statement.
  • EIA helps in development: EIA provides a framework for considering location, design and environmental issues together. It helps formulate actions along with indicatons where the project can be modified to eliminate or minimize the adverse effect on the environment. By considering environmental impacts at an early stage in the development activity helps to develop an area in an environmentally sensitive manner. EIA helps improve relations between developer, the planning authority and the local communities.
  • An EIA is an instrument for sustainable development: Sustainble development mainly includes
    • Maintenance of overall quality of life (QOL)
    • Maintainance of continuing access to natural resources.
    • Avoidance of extended environmental consequences.
 An EIA can:
  • modify and improve design
  • ensure efficient resource use
  • enhance social aspects
  • identify key impacts and measures for mitigating them
  • inform decision-making and condition-setting
  • avoid serious and irreversible damage to the environment
  • protect human health and safety